RRC ID 73367
Author Nef C, Madoui MA, Pelletier É, Bowler C.
Title Whole-genome scanning reveals environmental selection mechanisms that shape diversity in populations of the epipelagic diatom Chaetoceros.
Journal PLoS Biol
Abstract Diatoms form a diverse and abundant group of photosynthetic protists that are essential players in marine ecosystems. However, the microevolutionary structure of their populations remains poorly understood, particularly in polar regions. Exploring how closely related diatoms adapt to different environments is essential given their short generation times, which may allow rapid adaptations, and their prevalence in marine regions dramatically impacted by climate change, such as the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Here, we address genetic diversity patterns in Chaetoceros, the most abundant diatom genus and one of the most diverse, using 11 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) reconstructed from Tara Oceans metagenomes. Genome-resolved metagenomics on these MAGs confirmed a prevalent distribution of Chaetoceros in the Arctic Ocean with lower dispersal in the Pacific and Southern Oceans as well as in the Mediterranean Sea. Single-nucleotide variants identified within the different MAG populations allowed us to draw a landscape of Chaetoceros genetic diversity and revealed an elevated genetic structure in some Arctic Ocean populations. Gene flow patterns of closely related Chaetoceros populations seemed to correlate with distinct abiotic factors rather than with geographic distance. We found clear positive selection of genes involved in nutrient availability responses, in particular for iron (e.g., ISIP2a, flavodoxin), silicate, and phosphate (e.g., polyamine synthase), that were further supported by analysis of Chaetoceros transcriptomes. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of environmental selection in shaping diatom diversity patterns and provide new insights into their metapopulation genomics through the integration of metagenomic and environmental data.
Volume 20(11)
Pages e3001893
Published 2022-11-1
DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.3001893
PMID 36441816
PMC PMC9731442
MeSH Diatoms* / genetics Ecosystem Genomics Metagenomics
IF 7.076
Algae NIES-3715