RRC ID 74534
Author Inoue E, Minatozaki S, Katsuta Y, Nonaka S, Nakanishi H.
Title Human β-Defensin 3 Inhibits Porphyromonas Gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oxidative and Inflammatory Responses of Microglia by Suppression of Cathepsins B and L.
Journal Int J Mol Sci
Abstract Recently, the effects of antibacterial peptides are suggested to have therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, systemic treatment of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathological changes in middle-aged mice. Then, we examined whether human β-defensins (hBDs), antimicrobial peptides produced by the oral mucosa and salivary glands, can suppress Pg LPS-induced oxidative and inflammatory responses by microglia. hBD3 (1 μM) significantly suppressed Pg LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by MG6 cells, a mouse microglial cell line. hBD3 (1 μM) also significantly inhibited Pg LPS-induced expression of IL-6 by HMC3 cells, a human microglial cell line. In contrast, neither hBD1, hBD2 nor hBD4 failed to inhibit their productions. Furthermore, hBD3 suppressed Pg LPS-induced p65 nuclear translocation through the IκBα degradation. Pg LPS-induced expression of IL-6 was significantly suppressed by E64d, a cysteine protease inhibitor, and CA-074Me, a known specific inhibitor for cathepsin B, but not by pepstatin A, an aspartic protease inhibitor. Interestingly, hBD3 significantly inhibited enzymatic activities of recombinant human cathepsins B and L, lysosomal cysteine proteases, and their intracellular activities in MG6 cells. Therefore, hBD3 suppressed oxidative and inflammatory responses of microglia through the inhibition of cathepsins B and L, which enzymatic activities are necessary for the NF-κB activation.
Volume 23(23)
Published 2022-12-1
DOI 10.3390/ijms232315099
PII ijms232315099
PMID 36499428
PMC PMC9738813
MeSH Alzheimer Disease* Animals Cathepsin B / metabolism Cathepsin L / metabolism Humans Interleukin-6 / metabolism Lipopolysaccharides Mice Microglia / metabolism NF-kappa B / metabolism Porphyromonas gingivalis / metabolism beta-Defensins* / metabolism
IF 4.556
Human and Animal Cells MG6(RCB2403)