The Drosophila germ plasm is responsible for germ cell formation. Its assembly begins with localization of oskar mRNA to the posterior pole of the oocyte. The oskar translation produces 2 isoforms with distinct functions: short Oskar recruits germ plasm components, whereas long Oskar remodels actin to anchor the components to the cortex. The mechanism by which long Oskar anchors them remains elusive. Here, we report that Yolkless, which facilitates uptake of nutrient yolk proteins into the oocyte, is a key cofactor for long Oskar. Loss of Yolkless or depletion of yolk proteins disrupts the microtubule alignment and oskar mRNA localization at the posterior pole of the oocyte, whereas microtubule-dependent localization of bicoid mRNA to the anterior and gurken mRNA to the anterior-dorsal corner remains intact. Furthermore, these mutant oocytes do not properly respond to long Oskar, causing defects in the actin remodeling and germ plasm anchoring. Thus, the yolk uptake is not merely the process for nutrient incorporation, but also crucial for oskar mRNA localization and cortical anchorage of germ plasm components in the oocyte.