RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) interact with mRNA to form supramolecular complexes called messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particles. These dynamic assemblies direct and regulate individual steps of gene expression; however, their composition and functional importance remain largely unknown. Here, we develop a total internal reflection fluorescence-based single-molecule imaging assay to investigate stoichiometry and co-occupancy of 15 RBPs within mRNPs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show compositional heterogeneity of single mRNPs and plasticity across different growth conditions, with major co-occupants of mRNPs containing the nuclear cap-binding complex identified as Yra1 (1-10 copies), Nab2 (1-6 copies), and Npl3 (1-6 copies). Multicopy Yra1-bound mRNPs are specifically co-occupied by the THO complex and assembled on mRNAs biased by transcript length and RNA secondary structure. Yra1 depletion results in decreased compaction of nuclear mRNPs demonstrating a packaging function. Together, we provide a quantitative framework for gene- and condition-dependent RBP occupancy and stoichiometry in individual nuclear mRNPs.