RRC ID 78016
Author Thompson JB, Davis KE, Dodd HO, Wills MA, Priest NK.
Title Speciation across the Earth driven by global cooling in terrestrial orchids.
Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Abstract Although climate change has been implicated as a major catalyst of diversification, its effects are thought to be inconsistent and much less pervasive than localized climate or the accumulation of species with time. Focused analyses of highly speciose clades are needed in order to disentangle the consequences of climate change, geography, and time. Here, we show that global cooling shapes the biodiversity of terrestrial orchids. Using a phylogeny of 1,475 species of Orchidoideae, the largest terrestrial orchid subfamily, we find that speciation rate is dependent on historic global cooling, not time, tropical distributions, elevation, variation in chromosome number, or other types of historic climate change. Relative to the gradual accumulation of species with time, models specifying speciation driven by historic global cooling are over 700 times more likely. Evidence ratios estimated for 212 other plant and animal groups reveal that terrestrial orchids represent one of the best-supported cases of temperature-spurred speciation yet reported. Employing >2.5 million georeferenced records, we find that global cooling drove contemporaneous diversification in each of the seven major orchid bioregions of the Earth. With current emphasis on understanding and predicting the immediate impacts of global warming, our study provides a clear case study of the long-term impacts of global climate change on biodiversity.
Volume 120(29)
Pages e2102408120
Published 2023-7-10
DOI 10.1073/pnas.2102408120
PMID 37428929
PMC PMC10629580
MeSH Animals Biodiversity* Cold Temperature* Genetic Speciation Geography Phylogeny Temperature
IF 9.412
GBIF Herbarium Specimens of The Kagoshima University Museum (KAG) Herbaceous and arboreous plants list on the Komaba Campus of University of Tokyo, Japan Spermatophyta specimens of Iwate Prefectural Museum Vascular Plant Specimens of Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden Gunma Museum of Natural History, Vascular Plant Specimen A dataset for vascular plant diversity monitoring for the natural World Heritage site on Amami-Oshima Island, Tokunoshima Island, and the northern Okinawa Island The 2nd and 3rd National Survey on the Natural Environment: Vegetation Survey (common species) The 2nd and 3rd National Survey on the Natural Environment: Vegetation Survey (rare species) Herbarium of Shinshu University