RRC ID 78636
Author Tsai KP, Kirschman ZA, Moldaenke C, Chaffin JD, McClure A, Seo Y, Bridgeman TB.
Title Field and laboratory studies of fluorescence-based technologies for real-time tracking of cyanobacterial cell lysis and potential microcystins release.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Abstract Elevated levels of dissolved microcystins (MCs) in source water due to rapid cell lysis of harmful cyanobacterial blooms may pose serious challenges for drinking water treatment. Catastrophic cell lysis can result from outbreaks of naturally-occurring cyanophages - as documented in Lake Erie during the Toledo water crisis of 2014 and in 2019, or through the application of algaecides or water treatment chemicals. Real-time detection of cyanobacterial cell lysis in source water would provide a valuable tool for drinking water plant and reservoir managers. In this study we explored two real-time fluorescence-based devices, PhycoSens and PhycoLA, that can detect unbound phycocyanin (uPC) as a potential indication of cell lysis and MCs release. The PhycoSens was deployed at the Low Service pump station of the City of Toledo Lake Erie drinking water treatment plant from July 15 to October 19, 2022 during the annual cyanobacteria bloom season. It measured major algal groups and uPC in incoming lake water at 15-min intervals during cyanobacteria dominant and senescence periods. Intermittent uPC detections from the PhycoSens over a three-month period coincided with periods of increasing proportions of extracellular MCs relative to total (intracellular and extracellular) MCs, indicating potential for uPC use as an indicator of cyanobacterial cell integrity. Following exposures of laboratory-cultured MCs-producing Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-298 (120 μg chlorophyll/L) to cyanophage Ma-LMM01, copper sulfate (0.5 and 1 mg Cu/L), sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (PAK® 27, 6.7 and 10 mg H2O2/L), and potassium permanganate (2.5 and 4 mg/L), appearance of uPC coincided with elevated fractions of extracellular MCs. The PhycoLA was used to monitor batch samples collected daily from Lake Erie water exposed to algaecides in the laboratory. Concurrence of uPC signal and surge of dissolved MCs was observed following 24-h exposures to copper sulfate and PAK 27. Overall results indicate the appearance of uPC is a useful indicator of the onset of cyanobacterial cell lysis and the release of MCs when MCs are present.
Volume 920
Pages 171121
Published 2024-4-10
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.171121
PII S0048-9697(24)01260-9
PMID 38382604
MeSH Copper Sulfate Cyanobacteria* Drinking Water* Fluorescence Herbicides* Hydrogen Peroxide Lakes / microbiology Microcystins Microcystis*
Algae NIES-298