RRC ID 78832
Author Funato N, Heliövaara A, Boeckx C.
Title A regulatory variant impacting TBX1 expression contributes to basicranial morphology in Homo sapiens.
Journal Am J Hum Genet
Abstract Changes in gene regulatory elements play critical roles in human phenotypic divergence. However, identifying the base-pair changes responsible for the distinctive morphology of Homo sapiens remains challenging. Here, we report a noncoding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs41298798, as a potential causal variant contributing to the morphology of the skull base and vertebral structures found in Homo sapiens. Screening for differentially regulated genes between Homo sapiens and extinct relatives revealed 13 candidate genes associated with basicranial development, with TBX1, implicated in DiGeorge syndrome, playing a pivotal role. Epigenetic markers and in silico analyses prioritized rs41298798 within a TBX1 intron for functional validation. CRISPR editing revealed that the 41-base-pair region surrounding rs41298798 modulates gene expression at 22q11.21. The derived allele of rs41298798 acts as an allele-specific enhancer mediated by E2F1, resulting in increased TBX1 expression levels compared to the ancestral allele. Tbx1-knockout mice exhibited skull base and vertebral abnormalities similar to those seen in DiGeorge syndrome. Phenotypic differences associated with TBX1 deficiency are observed between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis). In conclusion, the regulatory divergence of TBX1 contributes to the formation of skull base and vertebral structures found in Homo sapiens.
Published 2024-4-5
DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2024.03.012
PII S0002-9297(24)00085-5
PMID 38608674
Human and Animal Cells MG-63(RCB1890) COS-1(RCB0143)
Mice RBRC01145