RRC ID 80563
Author Kawasaki S, Ozawa K, Mori T, Yamamoto A, Ito M, Ohkuma M, Sakamoto M, Matsutani M.
Title Symbiosis of Carpenter Bees with Uncharacterized Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing NAD Auxotrophy.
Journal Microbiol Spectr
Abstract Eusocial bees (such as honey bees and bumble bees) harbor core gut microbiomes that are transmitted through social interaction between nestmates. Carpenter bees are not eusocial; however, recent microbiome analyses found that Xylocopa species harbor distinctive core gut microbiomes. In this study, we analyzed the gut microbiomes of three Xylocopa species in Japan between 2016 and 2021 by V1 to V2 region-based 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing, and 14 candidate novel species were detected based on the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. All Xylocopa species harbor core gut microbiomes consisting of primarily lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that were phylogenetically distant from known species. Although they were difficult to cultivate, two LAB species from two different Xylocopa species were isolated by supplementing bacterial culture supernatants. Both genomes exhibited an average LAB genome size with a large set of genes for carbohydrate utilization but lacked genes to synthesize an essential coenzyme NAD, which is unique among known insect symbionts. Our findings of phylogenetically distinct core LAB of NAD auxotrophy reflected the evolution of Xylocopa-restricted bacteria retention and maintenance through vertical transmission of microbes during solitary life. We propose five candidate novel species belonging to the families Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, including a novel genus, and their potential functions in carbohydrate utilization. IMPORTANCE Recent investigations found unique microbiomes in carpenter bees, but the description of individual microbes, including isolation and genomics, remains largely unknown. Here, we found that the Japanese Xylocopa species also harbor core gut microbiomes. Although most of them were difficult to isolate a pure colony, we successfully isolated several strains. We performed whole-genome sequencing of the isolated candidate novel species and found that the two Lactobacillaceae strains belonging to the Xylocopa-specific novel LAB clade lack the genes for synthesizing NAD, a coenzyme central to metabolism in all living organisms. Here, we propose a novel genus for the two LAB species based on very low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and genotypic characters.
Volume 11(4)
Pages e0078223
Published 2023-8-17
DOI 10.1128/spectrum.00782-23
PMID 37347191
PMC PMC10433979
MeSH Animals Bees Carbohydrates Lactobacillales* / genetics NAD / genetics Phylogeny RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics Symbiosis
General Microbes JCM 35347 JCM 35348 JCM 35343 JCM 35346 JCM 35345