How to Query

  1. Searching with multiple keywords

  2. Searching with a phrase

  3. Including or excluding words from your search

  4. Wildcard searches

  5. Fuzzy searches

  6. Proximity Searches

  7. Grouping

1. Searching with multiple keywords

To search with multiple keywords, separate each word with a space such as "spore maturation". This will search for strains with either of the keywords. If you want to search for strains with all of the keywords, use the AND operator, such as "spore AND maturation".

2. Searching with a phrase

If you surround several words with double quotes such as "spore maturation", a search for that particular phrase will be performed. Without the double quotes, a search for either of the words will be performed.

3. Including or excluding words from your search

You can use operators to include or exclude specific words from your search.

A union using sets - OR operator or || symbol

This will search for strains with either of the keywords. For example, "spore OR maturation" or "spore || maturation" will search for strains related to either spore or maturation.

An intersection using sets – AND operator or && symbol

This will search for strains which contain both of the keywords. For example, if you type "spore AND maturation" or "spore && maturation", a search for strains which contain both keywords "spore" and "maturation" will be performed.

A difference using sets – NOT operator or ! symbol

The NOT operator excludes strains that contain the keyword after the NOT operator. For example, if you type "spore NOT maturation" or "spore !maturation", a search for strains which contain spore but does not contain maturation will be performed.

Plus (+) symbol

The "+" symbol performs a search for strains that must contain the keyword which comes after the "+" symbol. For example, use "spore +maturation" to search for strains that may contain "spore" but must contain "maturation".

Minus (-) symbol

The "-" symbol excludes strains that contain the keyword which comes after the "-" symbol. For example, use "-spore –maturation" to search for strains without "spore" and without "maturation".

4. Wildcard searches

You can use the following characters for wildcard searches.

Question mark (?) for single character wildcard search

The single character wildcard search will look for images with keywords which match that with the single character replaced. For example, use "yrr?" to search for "yrrO" or "yrrN".

Asterisk (*) for multiple characters wildcard search

The multiple character wildcard search will look for images with keywords that match that with 0 or more characters replaced. For example, use "pro*" to search for "protease" or "protein".

5. Fuzzy searches

You can use the tilde (~) symbol at the end of a single keyword to perform a fuzzy search which will look for other words with spelling similar to the keyword. For example, use "protei~" to search for strains related to "protein" or "proton".
Furthermore, you can specify the edit distance (positive integer) after the tilde, e.g., "protei~2". Edit distance refers to the minimum number of operations (insertion, deletion or replacement) required to convert the keyword into the targeted word.

6. Proximity Searches

You can add the tilde (~) symbol and a number at the end of a phrase to specify the distance of the keywords with one another. For example, use "spore maturation"~10 to search for information with "spore" and "maturation" within 10 words of each other.

7. Grouping

Keywords grouped together with parentheses () will be prioritized in the search. For example, use "(spore OR maturation) AND spore" to search for spore that are spore or maturation.