We performed gene-based comparative FISH mapping between a wild silkmoth, Samia cynthia ssp. with a low number of chromosomes (2n=25-28) and the model species, Bombyx mori (2n=56), in order to identify the genomic components that make up the chromosomes in a low-number karyotype. Mapping of 64 fosmid probes containing orthologs of B. mori genes revealed that the homologues of either two or four B. mori chromosomes constitute the S. c. ricini (Vietnam population, 2n=27♀/28♂, Z0/ZZ) autosomes. Where tested, even the gene order was conserved between S. c. ricini and B. mori. This was also true for the originally autosomal parts of the neo-sex chromosomes in S. c. walkeri (Sapporo population, 2n=26♀/26♂, neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z) and S. cynthia subsp. indet. (Nagano population, 2n=25♀/26♂, neo-WZ₁Z₂/Z₁Z₁Z₂Z₂). The results are evidence for an internal stability of lepidopteran chromosomes even when all autosomes had undergone fusion processes to form a low-number karyotype.