A strictly thermophilic anaerobe, designated strain VF08(T), was isolated from a water sample collected from a Great Artesian Basin bore (registered bore number 22981) situated at Mitchell, QLD, Australia. Cells of isolate VF08(T) were slightly curved, non-sporulating rods (1.5-3.5 x 0.4-0.8 μm), which stained Gram-negative but possessed a Gram-positive cell-wall ultrastructure. The strain grew optimally in tryptone-yeast extract-glucose (TYEG) medium at 55 °C (temperature growth range between 37 and 60 °C) and a pH of 7 (pH growth range, 6.0-9.0). Yeast extract or tryptone was required for growth on glucose, fructose, xylose, maltose, sucrose, raffinose, cellobiose, ribose, pyruvate, tryptone, peptone, Casamino acids, amyl media and serine, but could also support growth as the sole carbon source. End products from glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol, CO₂ and H₂. The strain reduced vanadium(V), but not iron(III), manganese(IV), elemental sulfur, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, nitrate or nitrite in the presence of 0.2 % yeast extract, peptone, tryptone, glucose, sucrose and Casamino acids, but an increase in the growth rate or cell yield was not observed. Growth was inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, penicillin, ampicillin and ≥ 2 % NaCl (w/v). The G+C content of the DNA was 38.4 ± 0.8 mol% as determined by the thermal denaturation (T(m)) method. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that isolate VF08(T) was a member of the genus Caloramator with Caloramator australicus and Caloramator fervidus (formerly Clostridium fervidus) being the closest relatives with similarity values of 85.0 and 86.1 %, respectively, when helix 6 nucleotides were included in the analysis, and 95.2 % and 94 %, respectively, when these nucleotides were masked from the analysis. Further analysis revealed that strain VF08(T) formed an individual cluster (cluster II) within the genus Caloramator and could be distinguished from other species within the genus Caloramator (clusters I, III and IV) on the basis of signature nucleotides and differences in phenotypic traits. These data suggest that strain VF08(T) is a novel species of the genus Caloramator, for which the name Caloramator mitchellensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VF08(T) (=JCM 15828(T)=KCTC 5735(T)). An emended description of the genus Caloramator is also provided.