Ig class switch recombination (CSR) is triggered by the engagement of CD40 on B cells by CD40 ligand on T cells. In addition, recent studies have shown that dendritic cells (DCs) are able to directly control the CSR of B cells through B lymphocyte stimulator protein [or B cell activation factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family] and a proliferation-inducing ligand. We examined in this study the regulatory role of DCs in CSR and demonstrate that DCs selectively suppress IgE production from B cells stimulated by CD40 and IL-4 through two different mechanisms: by direct cell-cell interaction or by soluble factors including transforming growth factor-beta and IFN-gamma. In addition, distinct DCs utilize different mechanisms: immature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and primary lung DCs strongly inhibit IgE CSR. On the other hand, LPS-induced mature BMDCs lose the ability to inhibit IgE CSR but still suppress IgE production by decreasing IgE protein expression. These results indicate novel regulatory functions of DCs on IgE production.