Usui Y, Uematsu T, Uchihashi T, Takahashi M, Takahashi M, Ishizuka M, Doto R, Tanaka H, Komazaki Y, Osawa M, Yamada K, Yamaoka M, Furusawa K.
Inorganic polyphosphate [Poly(P)] is especially prevalent in osteoblasts. We tested the hypothesis that Poly(P) stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and polyphosphate metabolism for bone formation. The osteoblast-like cell line, MC 3T3-E1, was cultured with Poly(P), and gene expression was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction. Phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization were also determined. The role of Poly(P) was assessed in a beagle dog alveolar bone regeneration model. Poly(P) increased osteocalcin, osterix, bone sialoprotein, and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene expression, with a high level of end-polyphosphatase activity, resulting in low-chain-length Poly(P), inorganic pyrophosphate, and inorganic phosphate production. MC3T3-E1 cells differentiated into mature osteoblasts and showed expression of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1, while mouse progressive ankylosis gene expression remained unchanged. Promotion of alveolar bone regeneration was observed in Poly(P)-treated beagle dogs. These findings suggest that Poly(P) induces osteoblastic differentiation and bone mineralization, and acts as a resource for mineralization.