The study on the genetic basis of heterosis has received significant attention in recent years. In this study, using a set of introgression lines (ILs) and corresponding testcross F(1) populations, we investigated heterotic loci (HL) associated with six yield-related traits in both Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica and japonica. A total of 41 HL were detected on the basis of mid-parent heterosis values with single-point analysis. The F(1) test-cross population showed superiority in most yield-related traits and was characterized by a high frequency of overdominant HL. Thirty-eight of the 41 HL were overdominant, and in the absence of epistasis, three HL were dominant, suggesting that heterotic effects at the single-locus level mainly appeared to be overdominant in rice. Twenty-four HL had a real positive effect, suggesting that they are viable candidates for the improvement of rice yield potential. Compared with the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected in the ILs, only six out of the 41 (14.6%) HL were detected in QTL analysis under the same statistical threshold, indicating that heterosis and trait performance may be conditioned by different sets of loci.