RRC ID 206
Author Haramoto Y, Tanegashima K, Onuma Y, Takahashi S, Sekizaki H, Asashima M.
Title Xenopus tropicalis nodal-related gene 3 regulates BMP signaling: an essential role for the pro-region.
Journal Dev. Biol.
Abstract In vertebrates, nodal-related genes are crucial for specifying mesendodermal cell fates. Six nodal-related genes have been identified in Xenopus, but only one, nodal, has been identified in the mouse. The Xenopus nodal-related gene 3 (Xnr3), however, lacks the mesoderm-inducing activity of the other five nodal-related genes in Xenopus, and can directly induce neural tissue in animal caps by antagonizing BMP signals. In this study, we isolated three clones of the Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis nodal-related gene 3 (Xtnr3) and analyzed their function. The Xtnr3 genes show high homology to Xnr3 and have the same activity. Southern blot and genomic PCR analyses indicate that the X. tropicalis genome has duplications in the Xtnr3 gene sequences and our three clones represent separate gene loci. We also found a partial clone of Xtnr3 that coded for the N-terminal part of its pro-region. Surprisingly, this sequence also induced neural tissue by antagonizing BMP signals, and its coded protein physically associated with BMP4 mature protein. Furthermore, we showed that the pro-region of Xnr5 has the same activity. Together, these findings indicate that the pro-region of nodal-related genes acts antagonistically towards BMP signals, which identifies a novel mechanism for the inhibition of BMP signaling.
Volume 265(1)
Pages 155-68
Published 2004-1-1
PII S0012160603005669
PMID 14697360
MeSH Animals Base Sequence Blotting, Southern Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / physiology DNA Primers Embryonic Induction / physiology* In Situ Hybridization Microinjections Molecular Sequence Data Precipitin Tests Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction Sequence Alignment Sequence Analysis, DNA Signal Transduction / physiology* Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics* Xenopus / embryology* Xenopus / genetics Xenopus Proteins*
IF 2.936
Times Cited 36
Xenopus tropicalis