RRC ID 20897
Author Onduka T, Mochida K, Harino H, Ito K, Kakuno A, Fujii K.
Title Toxicity of metal pyrithione photodegradation products to marine organisms with indirect evidence for their presence in seawater.
Journal Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
Abstract We evaluated the acute toxicities of the metal pyrithiones (MePTs)--copper pyrithione (CuPT) and zinc pyrithione (ZnPT)--to four species of marine algae and a marine crustacean (Tigriopus japonicus). We also performed acute toxicity tests using six of the main MePT photodegradation products: pyridine-N-oxide (PO); 2-mercaptopyridine (HPS); pyridine-2-sulfonic-acid (PSA); 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (HPT); 2,2'-dithio-bis-pyridine ([PS](2)); and 2,2'-dithio-bis-pyridine-N-oxide ([PT](2))-and three marine organisms representing three trophic levels: an alga (Skeletonema costatum), a crustacean (T. japonicus), and a fish (Pagrus major). The acute toxicity values (72-h EC(50)) of CuPT, ZnPT, HPT, (PT)(2), (PS)(2), HPS, PO, and PSA for S. costatum, which was the most sensitive of the test organisms to the chemicals tested, were 1.5, 1.6, 1.1, 3.4, 65, 730, >100,000, and >100,000 microg l(-1), respectively. CuPT was detected in the growth media used for S. costatum tests and in seawater containing HPT or (PT)(2); the concentration of CuPT in seawater containing HPT was highly dependent on the Cu(2+) concentration. These results indicate that in the presence of sufficient Cu(2+), the toxicities of HPT and (PT)(2) should be assessed as CuPT because in Japan MePTs are most frequently used as antifouling booster biocides in conjunction with cuprous oxide.
Volume 58(4)
Pages 991-7
Published 2010-5
DOI 10.1007/s00244-009-9430-8
PMID 19967345
MeSH Animals Crustacea / drug effects* Crustacea / growth & development Diatoms / drug effects* Diatoms / growth & development Environmental Monitoring Japan Lethal Dose 50 Molecular Structure Organometallic Compounds / analysis Organometallic Compounds / radiation effects Organometallic Compounds / toxicity* Perciformes / growth & development* Photolysis Pyridines / analysis Pyridines / radiation effects Pyridines / toxicity* Seawater / analysis* Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis Water Pollutants, Chemical / radiation effects Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*
IF 2.135
Times Cited 26
Algae NIES-324