We dissected barley chromosome 5H added to common wheat by a genetic method or the gametocidal system. Firstly, we induced chromosomal breaks in the offspring of a 5H addition line of common wheat carrying a gametocidal chromosome and cytologically screened for plants with structural chromosomal changes involving 5H, such as deletions and translocations. Secondly, we screened the progeny of such plants to establish common wheat lines carrying structurally changed chromosomes containing single segments of the dissected 5H. Using 23 representative 5H dissection lines, we physically mapped 97 barley EST markers assigned to 5H. The ESTs fell into 20 regions of 5H between the breakpoints of the 23 dissected segments, distributing rather evenly along the chromosome, with significantly higher frequency in the distal region of the long arm. The ESTs, in turn, allowed us to distinguish the breakpoints of dissected 5H segments. We demonstrated by PCR (polymerase chain reaction), as well as by in situ hybridization, that these dissected 5H segments were stably transmitted in the dissection lines. We discuss the usefulness of the 5H dissection lines for physical mapping of DNA markers. These 5H dissection lines are available from National BioResource Projects-Wheat, Japan.