RRC ID 21663
Author Bass D, Howe AT, Mylnikov AP, Vickerman K, Chao EE, Edwards Smallbone J, Snell J, Cabral C Jr, Cavalier-Smith T.
Title Phylogeny and classification of Cercomonadida (Protozoa, Cercozoa): Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Paracercomonas, and Cavernomonas gen. nov.
Journal Protist
Abstract Cercomonads (=Cercomonadida) are biflagellate gliding bacterivorous protozoa, abundant and diverse in soil and freshwater. We establish 56 new species based on 165 cultures, differential interference contrast microscopy, and 18S and ITS2 rDNA sequencing, and a new genus Cavernomonas studied by scanning electron microscopy. We fundamentally revise the phylogeny and classification of cercomonad Cercozoa. We describe 40 Cercomonas species (35 novel), six Eocercomonas (five novel), two Cavernomonas, and 18 Paracercomonas species (14 novel). We obtained additional cercomonad clade A (Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Cavernomonas) sequences from multiple environmental DNA libraries. The most commonly cultivated genotypes are not the commonest in environmental DNA, suggesting that cercomonad ecology is far more complex than implied by laboratory cultures. Cercomonads have never been isolated from saline environments, although some species can grow in semi-saline media in the laboratory, and environmental DNA libraries regularly detect them in coastal marine sediments. The first ultrastructural study of an anaerobic cercozoan, Paracercomonas anaerobica sp. nov., a highly divergent cercomonad, shows much simpler ciliary roots than in clade A cercomonads, a ciliary hub-lattice and axosome, and mitochondria with tubular cristae, consistent with it being only facultatively anaerobic. We also describe Agitata tremulans gen. et sp. nov., previously misidentified as Cercobodo (=Dimastigamoeba) agilis Moroff.
Volume 160(4)
Pages 483-521
Published 2009-11-1
DOI 10.1016/j.protis.2009.01.004
PII S1434-4610(09)00027-3
PMID 19589724
MeSH Cluster Analysis DNA, Protozoan / chemistry DNA, Protozoan / genetics DNA, Ribosomal / chemistry DNA, Ribosomal / genetics DNA, Ribosomal Spacer / chemistry DNA, Ribosomal Spacer / genetics Eukaryota / classification* Eukaryota / cytology Eukaryota / genetics Genes, rRNA Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Microscopy, Interference Molecular Sequence Data Phylogeny* RNA, Protozoan / genetics RNA, Ribosomal, 18S / genetics Sequence Analysis, DNA
IF 1.989
Times Cited 73
Algae NIES-2443 NIES-2435 NIES-2436 NIES-2437 NIES-2438 NIES-2439 NIES-2440 NIES-2441 NIES-2442 NIES-2444 NIES-2445 NIES-2434 NIES-2449 NIES-2450 NIES-2451 NIES-2452 NIES-2453 NIES-2454