RRC ID 27858
Author Kamaya Y, Tsuboi S, Takada T, Suzuki K.
Title Growth stimulation and inhibition effects of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and some related compounds on the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.
Journal Arch Environ Contam Toxicol
Abstract 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) exhibited low algal toxicity with the 72-h median inhibition concentration (IC50) of 9.9 mmol/L in the standard growth inhibition test using the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. In contrast, it stimulated the algal growth at lower concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mmol/L. Comparative studies with benzoic acid and 2- and 3-hydroxybenzoic acids (2-HBA and 3-HBA) indicated that 2-HBA was the most toxic, giving a 72-h IC50 of 0.172 mmol/L, and 4-HBA was the least toxic and that only 4-HBA had the pronounced growth stimulation activity. In a semicontinuous exposure to 4-HBA (0.15 and 0.3 mmol/L), algae maintained increased cell growth compared with controls during up to 10 times consecutive batch cultures, without any indication of adaptive responses to the growth enhancing effect of 4-HBA. Return to the clean standard medium of the exposed cells resulted in the quick recovery from the stimulant effect. Furthermore, 4-HBA (0.3 mmol/L) was found to diminish the toxicity of 2-HBA (<1.0 mmol/L). The presence of such compounds in the complex mixture might interact with other toxicants to alter the whole toxicity when assessed by the algal growth inhibition test. The effects of 4-HBA on P. subcapitata growth observed in the present study are not expected for planktonic algae in the aquatic environments, because known environmental concentrations are far below the effective concentration range.
Volume 51(4)
Pages 537-41
Published 2006-11-1
DOI 10.1007/s00244-005-0320-4
PMID 16998630
MeSH Chlorophyta / drug effects* Chlorophyta / growth & development Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Hydroxybenzoates / toxicity Parabens / toxicity* Salicylic Acid / toxicity
IF 2.4
Times Cited 25
Algae NIES-35