Shiojiri T, Wada K, Nakajima A, Katayama K, Shibuya A, Kudo C, Kadowaki T, Mayumi T, Yura Y, Kamisaki Y.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor, whose activation has been linked to several physiologic pathways including those related to the regulation of insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate effects of PPARgamma specific ligands, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, on formation of nitrotyrosine and increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in adjuvant-induced murine arthritis. Administration of rosiglitazone or pioglitazone (30 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced increase in formation of nitrotyrosine and expression of iNOS on both ankle and temporomandibular joints. Rosiglitazone also inhibited the adjuvant-induced expression of M30 positive cells, as a marker of apoptosis, in the joint tissues. In addition, treatment with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone (30 microM) inhibited lipopolysaccharide plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein expression of iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2, ICAM-1 and nitrotyrosine formation in RAW 264 cells, a murine macrophage-like cell line. Rosiglitazone or pioglitazone inhibited increase in phosphorylated I-kappaB (pI-kappaB) expression, as an index of activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, in both joint tissues and RAW264 cells. Furthermore, in PPARgamma-transfected HEK293 cells, rosiglitazone inhibited the TNF-alpha-stimulated response using NF-kappaB-mediated transcription reporter assay. These results indicate that PPARgamma ligands may possess anti-inflammatory activity against adjuvant-induced arthritis via the inhibition of NF-kappaB pathway.