RRC ID 42192
Author Shoji Y, Takahashi M, Kitamura T, Watanabe K, Kawamori T, Maruyama T, Sugimoto Y, Negishi M, Narumiya S, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K.
Title Downregulation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 during colon cancer development.
Journal Gut
Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Involvement of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptors EP(1), EP(2), and EP(4) in the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and/or intestinal polyps has been suggested. In contrast, EP(3) appears to have no influence on the early stages of colon carcinogenesis. In the present study, we examined expression of PGE(2) receptor subtypes EP(1), EP(2), EP(3), and EP(4) in normal colon mucosa and colon cancers, and assessed the contribution of EP(3) to colon cancer development.
METHODS:mRNA expression of PGE(2) receptor subtypes EP(1), EP(2), EP(3), and EP(4) in normal colon mucosa and colon cancers in azoxymethane (AOM) treated mice and rats, and in humans, were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical analyses. Evaluation of the role of EP(3) was performed by intraperitoneal injection of AOM, using EP(3) receptor knockout mice. Effects of EP(3) receptor activation on cell growth of human colon cancer cell lines were examined using ONO-AE-248, an EP(3) selective agonist. Moreover, EP(3) expression in colon cancer cell lines was analysed with or without 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment.
RESULTS:Expression levels of EP(1) and EP(2) mRNA were increased in cancer tissues. EP(4) mRNA was constantly expressed in normal mucosa and cancers. In contrast, expression of EP(3) mRNA was markedly decreased in colon cancer tissues, being 5% in mice, 9% in rats, and 28% in humans compared with normal colon mucosa, analysed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the rat EP(3) receptor protein to be expressed in epithelial cells of normal mucosa and some parts of small carcinomas but hardly detectable in large carcinomas of the colon. Colon cancer development induced by AOM in EP(3) receptor knockout mice was enhanced compared with wild-type mice, with a higher incidence of colon tumours (78% v 57%) and mean number of tumours per mouse (2.17 (0.51) v 0.75 (0.15); p<0.05). Expression of EP(3) mRNA was detected in only one of 11 human colon cancer cell lines tested. Treatment with 5 microM of an EP(3) selective agonist, ONO-AE-248, resulted in a 30% decrease in viable cell numbers in the HCA-7 human colon cancer cell line in which EP(3) was expressed. Treatment with 5-aza-dC restored EP(3) expression in CACO-2, CW-2, and DLD-1 cells but not in WiDr cells, suggesting involvement of hypermethylation in the downregulation of EP(3) to some extent.
CONCLUSION:The PGE(2) receptor subtype EP(3) plays an important role in suppression of cell growth and its downregulation enhances colon carcinogenesis at a later stage. Hypermethylation of the EP(3) receptor gene could occur and may contribute towards downregulating EP(3) expression to some extent in colon cancers.
Volume 53(8)
Pages 1151-8
Published 2004-8
DOI 10.1136/gut.2003.028787
PII 53/8/1151
PMID 15247185
PMC PMC1774140
MeSH Animals Caco-2 Cells Cell Line, Tumor Colon / metabolism Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism* Dinoprostone / analogs & derivatives Dinoprostone / pharmacology Down-Regulation Humans Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism Mice Mice, Inbred C57BL Mice, Knockout RNA, Messenger / analysis RNA, Neoplasm / analysis Rats Receptors, Prostaglandin E / agonists Receptors, Prostaglandin E / metabolism* Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP3 Subtype Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP4 Subtype
IF 17.016
Times Cited 94
Human and Animal Cells