We demonstrate that a Caenorhabditis elegans Krüppel-like transcription factor is involved in fat regulation, cell death, and phagocytosis in C. elegans. Suppression of C. elegans klf-1 function by RNA interference (RNAi) results in increased fat storage in the intestine of the RNAi worm that directly or indirectly causes germ cells to die. These dead cells are not engulfed or phagocytosed in the RNAi worm. High-level expression of Ce-klf-1 during larval development, as well as its specific localization in the worm's intestine, supports a direct role for Ce-klf-1 in fat regulation. The C. elegans klf-1 encodes a C(2)H(2) zinc finger protein that is known to act as transcriptional modulator of tissue-specific expression. Members of the Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family play a variety of important roles in vertebrate tissue differentiation. KLFs have recently been implicated in energy and glucose homeostasis through their expression in pancreas, adipose, liver, and muscle tissues. The extensive fat storage and increased cell death in the Ce-klf-1 RNAi worm is important in that it may explain the connection between Ce-klf-1 signaling, cell death, and fat storage. This is the first evidence involving Ce-KLF-1 protein in such functions. In future studies, a thorough analysis of cellular functions of other members of C. elegans Krüppel-like transcription factors together with their interactions and pathway activities with other molecular partners should yield significant insights into mammalian KLF proteins.