Adipogenesis is important to health and is thought occurring in the two stages of mesenchymal stem cell commitment to a preadipocyte fate and terminal differentiation of the preadipocyte. However, the mechanism of adipogenesis is still not clear. In this study, the roles of p38, extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), RhoA/ROCK, and cytoskeleton in both of the two stages of adipogenesis were assayed. Our results showed that the treatments of SB203580 (the inhibitor of p38) and U0126 (the inhibitor of ERK1/2) suppressed the adipogenesis induced by differentiation medium, and the treatments of PF573228 (a specific inhibitor of FAK), Y27632 (a specific inhibitor of RhoA/ROCK) and cytochalasin D (an inhibitor of cytoskeletal organization) promoted the adipogenesis. The treatments of SB203580 and U0126 significantly inhibited the adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs cultured in differentiation medium in the presence of PF573228, Y27632 or cytochalasin D. Moreover, the treatments of PF573228, Y27632 and cytochalasin D promoted p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylations, and the treatments of U0126 and SB203580 decreased p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylations, respectively. These results demonstrated that p38 and ERK1/2 played crucial positive roles in adipogenesis, and FAK, RhoA/ROCK and cytoskeleton played negative roles. Furthermore, FAK, RhoA/ROCK and cytoskeleton affected adipogenesis by regulating the activities of p38 and ERK1/2 which interacted with each other in the process of adipogenesis.