RRC ID 45405
Author Ohta T, Ido A, Kusano K, Miura C, Miura T.
Title A novel polysaccharide in insects activates the innate immune system in mouse macrophage RAW264 cells.
Journal PLoS One
Abstract A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named "dipterose", with a molecular weight of 1.01 × 10(6) and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon β (IFNβ) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal.
Volume 9(12)
Pages e114823
Published 2014-1-1
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0114823
PII PONE-D-14-30113
PMID 25490773
PMC PMC4260955
MeSH Animals Blotting, Western Cells, Cultured Immune System / immunology* Immunity, Innate / immunology* Macrophages / immunology* Macrophages / metabolism Macrophages / pathology Mice Nitric Oxide / metabolism* Polysaccharides / pharmacology* Pupa / physiology* RNA, Messenger / genetics Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction Tephritidae / physiology* Toll-Like Receptors / genetics Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism
IF 2.776
Times Cited 16
Human and Animal Cells