The cell structure has been studied using light and electron microscopies for centuries, and it is assumed that the whole structure is clarified by now. Little quantitative and three-dimensional analysis of cell structure, however, has been undertaken. We have coined a new word, 'structome', by combining 'structure' and '-ome', and defined it as the 'quantitative and three-dimensional structural information of a whole cell at the electron microscopic level'. In the present study, we performed structome analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most widely researched biological materials, by using freeze-substitution and serial ultrathin-sectioning electron microscopy. Our analysis revealed that there were one to three mitochondria, ~220 000 ribosomes in a cell, and 13-28 endoplasmic reticula/Golgi apparatus which do not form networks in the cytoplasm in the G1 phase. Nucleus occupied ~10.5% of the cell volume; cell wall occupied ~17%; vacuole occupied ~5.8%; cytoplasm occupied ~64%; and mitochondria occupied only ~1.7% in the G1 phase. Structome analysis of cells would form a base for the post-genome research.