Intracellular lipid amounts are regulated not only by metabolism but also by efflux. Yeast Rsb1 is the only known transporter/floppase of the sphingolipid components long-chain bases (LCBs). However, even fundamental knowledge about Rsb1, such as important amino acid residues for activity and substrate recognition, still remains unclear. Rsb1 belongs to the Rta1-like family. To date, it has not been determined whether all family members share a common ability to export LCBs. Here, we revealed that within the Rta1-like family, only Rsb1 suppressed the hypersensitivity of the mutant cells lacking LCB 1-phoshate-degrading enzymes, suggesting that LCB-exporting activity is specific to Rsb1. Rsb1 contains a characteristic region (loop 5), which does not exist in other proteins of the Rta1-like family. We found that deletion of this region caused loss of Rsb1 function. Further mutational analysis of loop 5 revealed that the charged amino acid residues E223, D225 and R236 were important for Rsb1 activity. In addition to LCBs, Rsb1 facilitated the export of 1-hexadecanol, but not palmitic acid, which suggests that Rsb1 recognizes the C1 hydroxyl group. Thus, our findings provide an important clue for understanding the molecular mechanism of LCB export.