"Photobacterium mandapamensis" (proposed name) and Photobacterium leiognathi are closely related, phenotypically similar marine bacteria that form bioluminescent symbioses with marine animals. Despite their similarity, however, these bacteria can be distinguished phylogenetically by sequence divergence of their luminescence genes, luxCDAB(F)E, by the presence (P. mandapamensis) or the absence (P. leiognathi) of luxF and, as shown here, by the sequence divergence of genes involved in the synthesis of riboflavin, ribBHA. To gain insight into the possibility that P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are ecologically distinct, we used these phylogenetic criteria to determine the incidence of P. mandapamensis as a bioluminescent symbiont of marine animals. Five fish species, Acropoma japonicum (Perciformes, Acropomatidae), Photopectoralis panayensis and Photopectoralis bindus (Perciformes, Leiognathidae), Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes, Apogonidae), and Gadella jordani (Gadiformes, Moridae), were found to harbor P. mandapamensis in their light organs. Specimens of A. japonicus, P. panayensis, and P. bindus harbored P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi together as cosymbionts of the same light organ. Regardless of cosymbiosis, P. mandapamensis was the predominant symbiont of A. japonicum, and it was the apparently exclusive symbiont of S. versicolor and G. jordani. In contrast, P. leiognathi was found to be the predominant symbiont of P. panayensis and P. bindus, and it appears to be the exclusive symbiont of other leiognathid fishes and a loliginid squid. A phylogenetic test for cospeciation revealed no evidence of codivergence between P. mandapamensis and its host fishes, indicating that coevolution apparently is not the basis for this bacterium's host preferences. These results, which are the first report of bacterial cosymbiosis in fish light organs and the first demonstration that P. leiognathi is not the exclusive light organ symbiont of leiognathid fishes, demonstrate that the host species ranges of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are substantially distinct. The host range difference underscores possible differences in the environmental distributions and physiologies of these two bacterial species.