A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacterium, strain Rf4T, which conserves energy from dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction concomitant with acetate oxidation, was isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium bioremediation. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain Rf4T matched sequences recovered in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from DNA extracted from groundwater sampled at the same time as the source sediment. Cells of strain Rf4T were regular, motile rods, 1.2-2.0 microm long and 0.5-0.6 microm in diameter, with rounded ends. Cells had one lateral flagellum. Growth was optimal at pH 6.5-7.0 and 32 degrees C. With acetate as the electron donor, strain Rf4T used Fe(III), Mn(IV), anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, malate and fumarate as electron acceptors and reduced U(VI) in cell suspensions. With poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor, strain Rf4T oxidized the following electron donors: acetate, lactate, pyruvate and ethanol. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain Rf4T placed it in the genus Geobacter. Strain Rf4T was most closely related to 'Geobacter humireducens' JW3 (95.9 % sequence similarity), Geobacter bremensis Dfr1T (95.4 %) and Geobacter bemidjiensis BemT (95.1 %). Based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic differences between strain Rf4T and closely related Geobacter species, this strain is described as a representative of a novel species, Geobacter uraniireducens sp. nov. The type strain is Rf4T (=ATCC BAA-1134T =JCM 13001T).