Ergothioneine (ERG) is a histidine-derived thiol compound suggested to function as an antioxidant and cytoprotectant in humans. Therefore, experimental trials have been conducted applying ERG from mushrooms in dietary supplements and as a cosmetic additive. However, this method of producing ERG is expensive; therefore, alternative methods for ERG supply are required. Five Mycobacterium smegmatis genes, egtABCDE, have been confirmed to be responsible for ERG biosynthesis. This enabled us to develop practical fermentative ERG production by microorganisms. In this study, we carried out heterologous and high-level production of ERG in Escherichia coli using the egt genes from M. smegmatis. By high production of each of the Egt enzymes and elimination of bottlenecks in the substrate supply, we succeeded in constructing a production system that yielded 24 mg/L (104 μM) secreted ERG.