RRC ID 56958
Author Nishiwaki-Ohkawa T, Yoshimura T.
Title Molecular basis for regulating seasonal reproduction in vertebrates.
Journal J. Endocrinol.
Abstract Animals that inhabit mid- to high-latitude regions exhibit various adaptive behaviors, such as migration, reproduction, molting and hibernation in response to seasonal cues. These adaptive behaviors are tightly regulated by seasonal changes in photoperiod, the relative day length vs night length. Recently, the regulatory pathway of seasonal reproduction has been elucidated using quail. In birds, deep brain photoreceptors receive and transmit light information to the pars tuberalis in the pituitary gland, which induces the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid-stimulating hormone locally activates thyroid hormone via induction of type 2 deiodinase in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Thyroid hormone then induces morphological changes in the terminals of neurons that express gonadotropin-releasing hormone and facilitates gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland. In mammals, light information is received by photoreceptors in the retina and neurally transmitted to the pineal gland, where it inhibits the synthesis and secretion of melatonin, which is crucial for seasonal reproduction. Importantly, the signaling pathway downstream of light detection and signaling is fully conserved between mammals and birds. In fish, the regulatory components of seasonal reproduction are integrated, from light detection to neuroendocrine output, in a fish-specific organ called the saccus vasculosus. Various physiological processes in humans are also influenced by seasonal environmental changes. The findings discussed herein may provide clues to addressing human diseases, such as seasonal affective disorder.
Volume 229(3)
Pages R117-27
Published 2016-6
DOI 10.1530/JOE-16-0066
PII JOE-16-0066
PMID 27068698
MeSH Animals Birds Circadian Clocks / physiology Female Fishes Humans Hypothalamus, Middle / physiology Male Mammals Neuronal Plasticity Photoperiod Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate / physiology Reproduction / genetics Reproduction / physiology* Seasonal Affective Disorder / physiopathology Seasons* Thyroid Hormones / physiology Vertebrates / genetics Vertebrates / physiology*
Chicken / Quail