Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes the chronic inflammation of the joints. Intercellular communication containing synovial fibroblasts seems to play a major role in RA pathogenesis. In this study, to better understand intercellular communication related to RA pathogenesis, we identified exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from synovial fibroblasts. Exosomes were collected from an RA synovial fibroblast (RASF) cell line, namely, MH7A, with or without stimulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We used small RNA sequencing to analyze the profile of small RNAs, including miRNAs, in MH7A exosomes and cells. By using differential expression analysis, we identified four miRNAs (miR-155-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-323a-5p, and miR-1307-3p) that are upregulated in exosomes with TNF-α stimulation. The identification of miR-155-5p and miR-146a-5p which have been reported in RA patients demonstrated the validity of our experimental model. Other two miRNAs were newly identified. miR-323a-5p was predicted to target the protein encoding gene CD6, which attenuates T-cell activation signals, and miR-1307-3p was predicted to target the protein encoding gene N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), which inhibits osteoclast-related gene expression. The results suggested that these miRNAs might be involved in RA pathogenesis. We hope our results will help us understand the role of RASF exosomes in RA pathogenesis.