Polyamines are essential for biofilm formation in Escherichia coli, but it is still unclear which polyamines are primarily responsible for this phenomenon. To address this issue, we constructed a series of E. coli K-12 strains with mutations in genes required for the synthesis and metabolism of polyamines. Disruption of the spermidine synthase gene (speE) caused a severe defect in biofilm formation. This defect was rescued by the addition of spermidine to the medium but not by putrescine or cadaverine. A multidrug/spermidine efflux pump membrane subunit (MdtJ)-deficient strain was anticipated to accumulate more spermidine and result in enhanced biofilm formation compared to the MdtJ+ strain. However, the mdtJ mutation did not affect intracellular spermidine or biofilm concentrations. E. coli has the spermidine acetyltransferase (SpeG) and glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase (Gss) to metabolize intracellular spermidine. Under biofilm-forming conditions, not Gss but SpeG plays a major role in decreasing the too-high intracellular spermidine concentrations. Additionally, PotFGHI can function as a compensatory importer of spermidine when PotABCD is absent under biofilm-forming conditions. Last, we report here that, in addition to intracellular spermidine, the periplasmic binding protein (PotD) of the spermidine preferential ABC transporter is essential for stimulating biofilm formation.IMPORTANCE Previous reports have speculated on the effect of polyamines on bacterial biofilm formation. However, the regulation of biofilm formation by polyamines in Escherichia coli has not yet been assessed. The identification of polyamines that stimulate biofilm formation is important for developing novel therapies for biofilm-forming pathogens. This study sheds light on biofilm regulation in E. coli Our findings provide conclusive evidence that only spermidine can stimulate biofilm formation in E. coli cells, not putrescine or cadaverine. Last, ΔpotD inhibits biofilm formation even though the spermidine is synthesized inside the cells from putrescine. Since PotD is significant for biofilm formation and there is no ortholog of the PotABCD transporter in humans, PotD could be a target for the development of biofilm inhibitors.