Osteoarthritis (OA), a disease that greatly impacts quality of life, has increasing worldwide prevalence as the population ages. However, its pathogenic mechanisms have not been fully elucidated and current therapeutic treatment strategies are inadequate. In recent years, abnormal endochondral ossification in articular cartilage has received attention as a pathophysiological mechanism in OA. Cartilage is composed of abundant extracellular matrix components, which are involved in tissue maintenance and regeneration, but how these factors affect endochondral ossification is not clear. Here, we show that the application of aggrecan-type proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartilage (sPG) exhibited marked proliferative capacity through receptor tyrosine kinases in chondroprogenitor cells, and also exhibited differentiation and three-dimensional structure formation via phosphorylation of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor and Growth Differentiation Factor 5 expression. Furthermore, sPG inhibited calcification via expression of Runx2 and Col10 (factors related to induction of calcification), while increasing Mgp, a mineralization inhibitory factor. As a result of analyzing the localization of sPG applied to the cells, it was localized on the surface of the cell membrane. In this study, we found that sPG, as a biomaterial, could regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and calcification inhibition by acting on the cell surface microenvironment. Therefore, sPG may be the foundation for a novel therapeutic approach for cartilage maintenance and for improved symptoms in OA.