Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is a major infectious disease of the foot skin in dairy cattle. Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes have been consistently detected in PDD lesions, and antibodies against these organisms have been demonstrated in affected cattle. However, little is known about the dominant antigens recognized by the immune system of affected cattle. Here, we investigated the IgG immune response to T. phagedenis-like isolates by Western blotting with different sera using whole-cell lysates and extracted glycolipid from 18 and 8 isolates, respectively, including those from different cattle on the same or different farms, isolates from different lesions affecting a single cow, and different isolates from the same lesion affecting a single cow. The reactivity of sera in Western blot assays revealed different banding patterns or showed no bands, suggesting that considerable antigenic variations, including glycolipid, may exist among the isolates, even in those from single individuals. With use of a total of 151 serum samples collected from three groups of cattle, i.e., PDD-positive cows on PDD-positive farms (group A), PDD-negative cows on PDD-positive farms (group B), and cows on PDD-free farms (group C), the levels of IgG antibodies against four T. phagedenis-like isolates were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The optical density in groups A and B was significantly higher than that in group C, even though the value varied among the antigens used. Therefore, combinations of multiple Treponema species should be used for serological analysis and the development of a suitable vaccine because of antigenic variations.