SignificanceHematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are generated from specialized endothelial cells, called hemogenic endothelial cells (HECs). It has been debated whether HECs and non-HSC-forming conventional endothelial cells (cECs) arise from a common precursor or represent distinct lineages. Moreover, the molecular basis underlying their distinct fate determination is poorly understood. We use photoconvertible labeling, time-lapse imaging, and single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis to trace the lineage of HECs. We discovered that HECs and cECs arise from a common hemogenic angioblast precursor, and their distinct fate is determined by high or low dosage of Etv2, respectively. Our results illuminate the lineage origin and a mechanism on the fate determination of HECs, which may enhance the understanding on the ontogeny of HECs in vertebrates.