RRC ID 75870
Author Carretero-Rodriguez L, Guðjónsdóttir R, Poparic I, Reilly ML, Chol M, Bianco IH, Chiapello M, Feret R, Deery MJ, Guthrie S.
Title The Rac-GAP alpha2-Chimaerin Signals via CRMP2 and Stathmins in the Development of the Ocular Motor System.
Journal J Neurosci
Abstract A precise sequence of axon guidance events is required for the development of the ocular motor system. Three cranial nerves grow toward, and connect with, six extraocular muscles in a stereotyped pattern, to control eye movements. The signaling protein alpha2-chimaerin (α2-CHN) plays a pivotal role in the formation of the ocular motor system; mutations in CHN1, encoding α2-CHN, cause the human eye movement disorder Duane Retraction Syndrome (DRS). Our research has demonstrated that the manipulation of α2-chn signaling in the zebrafish embryo leads to ocular motor axon wiring defects, although the signaling cascades regulated by α2-chn remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that several cytoskeletal regulatory proteins-collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2; encoded by the gene dpysl2), stathmin1, and stathmin 2-bind to α2-CHN. dpysl2, stathmin1, and especially stathmin2 are expressed by ocular motor neurons. We find that the manipulation of dpysl2 and of stathmins in zebrafish larvae leads to defects in both the axon wiring of the ocular motor system and the optokinetic reflex, impairing horizontal eye movements. Knockdowns of these molecules in zebrafish larvae of either sex caused axon guidance phenotypes that included defasciculation and ectopic branching; in some cases, these phenotypes were reminiscent of DRS. chn1 knock-down phenotypes were rescued by the overexpression of CRMP2 and STMN1, suggesting that these proteins act in the same signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CRMP2 and stathmins signal downstream of α2-CHN to orchestrate ocular motor axon guidance and to control eye movements.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The precise control of eye movements is crucial for the life of vertebrate animals, including humans. In humans, this control depends on the arrangement of nerve wiring of the ocular motor system, composed of three nerves and six muscles, a system that is conserved across vertebrate phyla. Mutations in the protein alpha2-chimaerin have previously been shown to cause eye movement disorders (squint) and axon wiring defects in humans. Our recent work has unraveled how alpha2-chimaerin coordinates axon guidance of the ocular motor system in animal models. In this article, we demonstrate key roles for the proteins CRMP2 and stathmin 1/2 in the signaling pathway orchestrated by alpha2-chimaerin, potentially giving insight into the etiology of eye movement disorders in humans.
Volume 41(31)
Pages 6652-6672
Published 2021-8-4
DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0983-19.2021
PII JNEUROSCI.0983-19.2021
PMID 34168008
PMC PMC8336708
MeSH Animals Axon Guidance / physiology* Chimerin 1 / genetics Chimerin 1 / metabolism* Duane Retraction Syndrome / genetics Eye Movements Motor Neurons / metabolism* Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism* Oculomotor Muscles / innervation* Signal Transduction / physiology Stathmin / metabolism* Zebrafish Zebrafish Proteins / metabolism*
IF 5.674
Zebrafish UAS:GFP