RRC ID 75961
Author Gaidamakova EK, Sharma A, Matrosova VY, Grichenko O, Volpe RP, Tkavc R, Conze IH, Klimenkova P, Balygina I, Horne WH, Gostinčar C, Chen X, Makarova KS, Shuryak I, Srinivasan C, Jackson-Thompson B, Hoffman BM, Daly MJ.
Title Small-Molecule Mn Antioxidants in Caenorhabditis elegans and Deinococcus radiodurans Supplant MnSOD Enzymes during Aging and Irradiation.
Journal mBio
Abstract Denham Harman's oxidative damage theory identifies superoxide (O2•-) radicals as central agents of aging and radiation injury, with Mn2+-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) as the principal O2•--scavenger. However, in the radiation-resistant nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme MnSOD is dispensable for longevity, and in the model bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, it is dispensable for radiation resistance. Many radiation-resistant organisms accumulate small-molecule Mn2+-antioxidant complexes well-known for their catalytic ability to scavenge O2•-, along with MnSOD, as exemplified by D. radiodurans. Here, we report experiments that relate the MnSOD and Mn-antioxidant content to aging and oxidative stress resistances and which indicate that C. elegans, like D. radiodurans, may rely on Mn-antioxidant complexes as the primary defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Wild-type and ΔMnSOD D. radiodurans and C. elegans were monitored for gamma radiation sensitivities over their life spans while gauging Mn2+-antioxidant content by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, a powerful new approach to determining the in vivo Mn-antioxidant content of cells as they age. As with D. radiodurans, MnSOD is dispensable for radiation survivability in C. elegans, which hyperaccumulates Mn-antioxidants exceptionally protective of proteins. Unexpectedly, ΔMnSOD mutants of both the nematodes and bacteria exhibited increased gamma radiation survival compared to the wild-type. In contrast, the loss of MnSOD renders radiation-resistant bacteria sensitive to atmospheric oxygen during desiccation. Our results support the concept that the disparate responses to oxidative stress are explained by the accumulation of Mn-antioxidant complexes which protect, complement, and can even supplant MnSOD. IMPORTANCE The current theory of cellular defense against oxidative damage identifies antioxidant enzymes as primary defenders against ROS, with MnSOD being the preeminent superoxide (O2•-) scavenger. However, MnSOD is shown to be dispensable both for radiation resistance and longevity in model organisms, the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, small-molecule Mn-antioxidant content was shown to decline in unison with age-related decreases in cell proliferation and radioresistance, which again are independent of MnSOD presence. Most notably, the Mn-antioxidant content of C. elegans drops precipitously in the last third of its life span, which links with reports that the steady-state level of oxidized proteins increases exponentially during the last third of the life span in animals. This leads us to propose that global responses to oxidative stress must be understood through an extended theory that includes small-molecule Mn-antioxidants as potent O2•--scavengers that complement, and can even supplant, MnSOD.
Volume 13(1)
Pages e0339421
Published 2022-2-22
DOI 10.1128/mbio.03394-21
PMID 35012337
PMC PMC8749422
MeSH Aging Animals Antioxidants* / metabolism Caenorhabditis elegans / metabolism Deinococcus* / metabolism Deinococcus* / radiation effects Manganese / metabolism Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism Superoxides / metabolism
Resource
C.elegans tm1146 tm783 tm760