RRC ID 76030
Author Peña-Ramos O, Chiao L, Liu X, Yu X, Yao T, He H, Zhou Z.
Title Autophagosomes fuse to phagosomes and facilitate the degradation of apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Journal Elife
Abstract Autophagosomes are double-membrane intracellular vesicles that degrade protein aggregates, intracellular organelles, and other cellular components. During the development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, many somatic and germ cells undergo apoptosis. These cells are engulfed and degraded by their neighboring cells. We discovered a novel role of autophagosomes in facilitating the degradation of apoptotic cells using a real-time imaging technique. Specifically, the double-membrane autophagosomes in engulfing cells are recruited to the surfaces of phagosomes containing apoptotic cells and subsequently fuse to phagosomes, allowing the inner vesicle to enter the phagosomal lumen. Mutants defective in the production of autophagosomes display significant defects in the degradation of apoptotic cells, demonstrating the importance of autophagosomes to this process. The signaling pathway led by the phagocytic receptor CED-1, the adaptor protein CED-6, and the large GTPase dynamin (DYN-1) promotes the recruitment of autophagosomes to phagosomes. Moreover, the subsequent fusion of autophagosomes with phagosomes requires the functions of the small GTPase RAB-7 and the HOPS complex components. Further observations suggest that autophagosomes provide apoptotic cell-degradation activities in addition to and in parallel of lysosomes. Our findings reveal that, unlike the single-membrane, LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) vesicles reported for mammalian phagocytes, the canonical double-membrane autophagosomes facilitate the clearance of C. elegans apoptotic cells. These findings add autophagosomes to the collection of intracellular organelles that contribute to phagosome maturation, identify novel crosstalk between the autophagy and phagosome maturation pathways, and discover the upstream signaling molecules that initiate this crosstalk.
Volume 11
Published 2022-1-4
DOI 10.7554/eLife.72466
PII 72466
PMID 34982028
PMC PMC8769646
MeSH Animals Apoptosis* Autophagosomes / physiology* Caenorhabditis elegans / physiology* Phagosomes / physiology
Resource
C.elegans tm3489 tm5755 tm1125 tm6474