In the rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm, storage proteins are synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in which prolamins are sorted to protein bodies (PBs) called type-I PB (PB-I). Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family oxidoreductase PDIL2;3, an ortholog of human P5, contains a conserved structural disulfide in the redox-inactive thioredoxin-like (TRX) domain and was efficiently targeted to the surface of PB-I in a redox active site-dependent manner, whereas PDIL1;1, an ortholog of human PDI, was localized in the ER lumen. Complementation analyses using PDIL1;1 knockout esp2 mutant indicated that the a and a' TRX domains of PDIL1;1 exhibited similar redox activities and that PDIL2;3 was unable to perform the PDIL1;1 functions. PDIL2;3 knockdown inhibited the accumulation of Cys-rich 10-kD prolamin (crP10) in the core of PB-I. Conversely, crP10 knockdown dispersed PDIL2;3 into the ER lumen. Glutathione S-transferase-PDIL2;3 formed a stable tetramer when it was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant PDIL2;3 tetramer facilitated α-globulin(C79F) mutant protein to form nonnative intermolecular disulfide bonds in vitro. These results indicate that PDIL2;3 and PDIL1;1 are not functionally redundant in sulfhydryl oxidations of structurally diverse storage proteins and play distinct roles in PB development. We discuss PDIL2;3-dependent and PDIL2;3-independent oxidation pathways that sustain disulfide bonds of crP10 in PB-I.