Kaplamadzhiev DB, Hisha H, Adachi Y, Ikehara S, Tonchev AB, Boneva NB, Pyko IV, Kikuchi M, Nakaya M, Wakayama T, Iseki S, Yamashima T.
The exact origin of neural stem cells in the adult neurogenesis niche remains unknown. Our previous studies, however, indicated an implication of both bone marrow cells as potential progenitors of hippocampal newborn neurons and polyunsaturated fatty acids as ligands of G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) signaling. Here, we aimed at studying whether bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC) treated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can express neuronal markers in vitro. We focused on implication of DHA/GPR40 signaling for the expression of neural markers in clonally-expanded BMSC from young macaque monkeys. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the DHA plus bFGF treatment induced a decrease of BMSC proliferation and increased the cells in the G0 resting phase. The transitions from nestin-positive progenitors via immature neuronal (beta III-tubulin-positive) to mature neuronal (NF-M and Map2-positive) phenotypes were examined using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. We detected a significant increase of GPR40 mRNA and protein expression after bFGF induction, being compared with the untreated BMSC. Addition of DHA, a representative GPR40 ligand, led to a significant down-regulation of GPR40, i.e., G protein-coupled receptor-specific internalization, with a subsequent upregulation of neuronal markers such as beta III-tubulin, NF-M and Map2. These data altogether suggest that adult primate BMSC can express neuronal markers with the aid of DHA/GPR40 signaling.