In rice (Oryza sativa L.), leaf photosynthesis is known to be highly correlated with stomatal conductance; however, it remains unclear whether stomatal conductance dominantly limits the photosynthetic rate. SLAC1 is a stomatal anion channel protein controlling stomatal closure in response to environmental [CO(2)]. In order to examine stomatal limitations to photosynthesis, a SLAC1-deficient mutant of rice was isolated and characterized. A TILLING screen of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-derived mutant lines was conducted for the rice SLAC1 orthologue gene Os04g0674700, and four mutant lines containing mutations within the open reading frame were obtained. A second screen using an infrared thermography camera revealed that one of the mutants, named slac1, had a constitutive low leaf temperature phenotype. Measurement of leaf gas exchange showed that slac1 plants grown in the greenhouse had significantly higher stomatal conductance (g (s)), rates of photosynthesis (A), and ratios of internal [CO(2)] to ambient [CO(2)] (C (i)/C (a)) compared with wild-type plants, whereas there was no significant difference in the response of photosynthesis to internal [CO(2)] (A/C (i) curves). These observations demonstrate that in well-watered conditions, stomatal conductance is a major determinant of photosynthetic rate in rice.