Urodeles and fish have a remarkable ability to regenerate lost body parts, whereas many higher vertebrates, including mammals, retain only a limited capacity. It is known that the formation of specialized cell populations such as the wound epidermis or blastema is crucial for regeneration; however, the molecular basis for their formation has not been elucidated. Recently, approaches using differential display and microarray have been done in zebrafish for searching molecules involved in regeneration. Here, we used the medaka fish, a distantly diverged fish species, for microarray screening of transcripts up-regulated during regeneration. By setting criteria for selecting transcripts that are reliably and reproducibly up-regulated during regeneration, we identified 140 transcripts. Of them, localized in situ expression of 12 transcripts of 22 tested was detected either in differentiating cartilage, basal wound epidermis, or blastema. Our results provide useful molecular markers for dissecting the regeneration process at a fine cellular resolution.