Serotonin (5-HT) regulates a wide range of behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans, including egg laying, male mating, locomotion and pharyngeal pumping. So far, four serotonin receptors have been described in the nematode C. elegans, three of which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), (SER-1, SER-4 and SER-7), and one is an ion channel (MOD-1). By searching the C. elegans genome for additional 5-HT GPCR genes, we identified five further genes which encode putative 5-HT receptors, based on sequence similarities to 5-HT receptors from other species. Using loss-of-function mutants and RNAi, we performed a systematic study of the role of the eight GPCR genes in serotonin-modulated behaviors of C. elegans (F59C12.2, Y22D7AR.13, K02F2.6, C09B7.1, M03F4.3, F16D3.7, T02E9.3, C24A8.1). We also examined their expression patterns. Finally, we tested whether the most likely candidate receptors were able to modulate adenylate cyclase activity in transfected cells in a 5-HT-dependent manner. This paper is the first comprehensive study of G protein-coupled serotonin receptors of C. elegans. It provides a direct comparison of the expression patterns and functional roles for 5-HT receptors in C. elegans.