RRC ID 47754
Author Tanaka T, Ochi H, Takahashi S, Ueno N, Taira M.
Title Genes coding for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are fragile in Xenopus.
Journal Dev Biol
Abstract Cell proliferation is strictly regulated by the dosage balance among cell-cycle regulators such as CDK/cyclin complexes and CDK-Inhibitors. Even in the allotetraploid genome of Xenopus laevis, the dosage balance must be maintained for animals to stay alive, and the duplicated homeologous genes seem to have gradually changed, through evolution, resulting in the best genes for them to thrive. In the Xenopus laevis genome, while homeologous gene pairs of CDKs are fundamentally maintained and a few cyclin genes are amplified, homeologous gene pairs of the important CDK-Inhibitors, CDKn1c and CDKn2a, are deleted from chromosomes L and S. Although losses of CDKn1c and CDKn2a can lead to diseases in humans, their loss in X. laevis does not affect the animals' health. Also, another gene coding CDKn1b is lost besides CDKn1c and CDKn2a in the genome of Xenopus tropicalis. These findings suggest a high resistance of Xenopus to diseases. We also found that CDKn2c.S expression is higher than that of CDKn2c.L, and a conserved noncoding sequence (CNS) of CDKn2c genomic loci on X. laevis chromosome S and X. tropicalis has an enhancement activity in regulating the different expression. These findings together indicate a surprising fragility of CDK inhibitor gene loci in the Xenopus genome in spite of their importance, and may suggest that factors other than CDK-inhibitors decelerate cell-cycling in Xenopus.
Volume 426(2)
Pages 291-300
Published 2017-6-15
DOI 10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.06.019
PII S0012-1606(16)30055-0
PMID 27393661
MeSH Amino Acid Sequence Animals Cell Cycle / genetics Cell Cycle / physiology Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins / genetics* Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / genetics Diploidy Embryo, Nonmammalian / physiology Evolution, Molecular Gene Deletion Genetic Speciation Genomic Instability Multigene Family Sequence Alignment Sequence Homology, Amino Acid Species Specificity Tetraploidy Xenopus / embryology Xenopus / genetics* Xenopus Proteins / genetics* Xenopus laevis / embryology Xenopus laevis / genetics
IF 2.896
Times Cited 0
Clawed frogs / Newts X. tropicalis