Fluoroquinolones and propionic acid derivatives are widely used antibacterials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively, which have been reported to frequently trigger drug hypersensitivity reactions. Such reactions are induced by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. The present study investigated whether levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, and loxoprofen, a propionic acid derivative, have the potential to induce immune-related gene expression in dendritic cell-like cell lines such as HL-60, K562, and THP-1, and immortalized keratinocytes such as HaCaT. The expression of IL-8, MCP-1, and TNFα messenger RNA (mRNA) was found to increase following treatment with levofloxacin or loxoprofen in HL-60 cells. In addition, these drugs increased the mRNA content of annexin A1, a factor related to keratinocyte necroptosis in patients with severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Inhibition studies using specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and NF-κB suggest that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is the pathway principally involved in the induction of cytokines and annexin A1 by levofloxacin, whereas the involvement of MAP kinases and NF-κB in the loxoprofen-induced gene expression of these factors may be limited. Fluoroquinolones and propionic acid derivatives that are structurally related to levofloxacin and loxoprofen, respectively, were also found to induce immune-related gene expression in HL-60 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that fluoroquinolones and propionic acid derivatives have the potential to induce the expression of immune-related factors and that an in vitro cell-based assay system to detect the immune-stimulating potential of systemic drugs might be useful for assessing the risk of drug hypersensitivity reactions.