RRC ID 52243
Author Matsunaga T, Morikawa Y, Kamata K, Shibata A, Miyazono H, Sasajima Y, Suenami K, Sato K, Takekoshi Y, Endo S, El-Kabbani O, Ikari A.
Title α-Pyrrolidinononanophenone provokes apoptosis of neuronal cells through alterations in antioxidant properties.
Journal Toxicology
Abstract In this study, we found that exposure to α-pyrrolidinononanophenone (α-PNP), a highly lipophilic synthetic cathinone, provokes apoptosis of human neuronal SK-N-SH cells. The drug sensitivity of the cells (50% lethal concentration of 12μM) was similar to those of aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and was higher than those of cells derived from colon, liver, lung and kidney, suggesting that α-PNP overdose and abuse cause serious damage in central nervous and vascular systems. SK-N-SH cell treatment with lethal concentrations (20 and 50μM) of α-PNP facilitated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The treatment also prompted elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c into cytosol, and resultant activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The apoptotic events (caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation) were abolished by pretreatment with antioxidants, N-acetyl-l-cysteine and polyethyleneglycol-conjugated catalase. These results suggest that ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation are potential events in the mechanism underlying the α-PNP-triggered neuronal cell apoptosis. Intriguingly, the α-PNP treatment of SK-N-SH cells was found to promote formation of 4-hydroxynonenal, a reactive aldehyde generated from lipid peroxidation. The α-PNP treatment also decreased cellular levels of total and reduced glutathiones, expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase mRNA and glutathione reductase activity. Furthermore, the α-PNP treatment resulted in both decrease in proteasomal activities and increase in expression of autophagy-related factors, which were significantly prevented by pretreating with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Therefore, the ROS formation by α-PNP treatment may be ascribable to the decrease in glutathione level through its consumption during 4-hydroxynonenal detoxification and dysfunction of both de novo synthesis and regeneration of glutathione, in addition to impairments in proteasomal and autophagic systems that degrade cellular oxidized components.
Volume 386
Pages 93-102
Published 2017-7-1
DOI 10.1016/j.tox.2017.05.017
PII S0300-483X(17)30164-6
PMID 28578026
MeSH Acetylcysteine / administration & dosage Aldehydes / metabolism Antioxidants / administration & dosage Antioxidants / metabolism* Apoptosis / drug effects* Caspase 3 / metabolism Caspase 9 / metabolism Cell Line Cytochromes c / metabolism DNA Fragmentation / drug effects Glutathione / metabolism Glutathione Reductase / metabolism Humans Ketones / administration & dosage Ketones / pharmacology* Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects Neurons / drug effects* Neurons / metabolism Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage Pyrrolidines / administration & dosage Pyrrolidines / pharmacology* Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
IF 4.099
Times Cited 13
Human and Animal Cells SK-N-SH(RCB0426)