RRC ID 54745
Author Imamura T, Isozumi N, Higashimura Y, Miyazato A, Mizukoshi H, Ohki S, Mori M.
Title Isolation of amaranthin synthetase from Chenopodium quinoa and construction of an amaranthin production system using suspension-cultured tobacco BY-2 cells.
Journal Plant Biotechnol J
Abstract Betalains are plant pigments primarily produced by plants of the order Caryophyllales. Because betalain possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, it may be useful as a pharmaceutical agent and dietary supplement. Recent studies have identified the genes involved in the betalain biosynthesis of betanin. Amaranthin and celosianin II are abundant in the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) hypocotyl, and amaranthin comprises glucuronic acid bound to betanin; therefore, this suggests the existence of a glucuronyltransferase involved in the synthesis of amaranthin in the quinoa hypocotyl. To identify the gene involved in amaranthin biosynthesis, we performed a BLAST analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis based on sequences homologous to flavonoid glycosyltransferase, followed by expression analysis on the quinoa hypocotyl to obtain three candidate proteins. Production of amaranthin in a transient Nicotiana benthamiana expression system was evaluated for these candidates and one was identified as having the ability to produce amaranthin. The gene encoding this protein was quinoa amaranthin synthetase 1 (CqAmaSy1). We also created a transgenic tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cell line wherein four betalain biosynthesis genes were introduced to facilitate amaranthin production. This transgenic cell line produced 13.67 ± 4.13 μm (mean ± SEM) amaranthin and 26.60 ± 1.53 μm betanin, whereas the production of isoamaranthin and isobetanin could not be detected. Tests confirmed the ability of amaranthin and betanin to slightly suppress cancer cell viability. Furthermore, amaranthin was shown to significantly inhibit HIV-1 protease activity, whereas betanin did not.
Volume 17(5)
Pages 969-981
Published 2019-5-1
DOI 10.1111/pbi.13032
PMID 30451369
PMC PMC6587806
MeSH Betacyanins / biosynthesis* Betacyanins / metabolism Bioreactors Cells, Cultured Chenopodium quinoa / enzymology* Chenopodium quinoa / metabolism Cloning, Molecular HIV Protease HIV Protease Inhibitors / metabolism HIV Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology Ligases / isolation & purification* Ligases / metabolism Metabolic Networks and Pathways Plant Proteins / isolation & purification* Plant Proteins / metabolism Plants, Genetically Modified Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction Tobacco / cytology Tobacco / enzymology Tobacco / metabolism*
IF 6.84
Times Cited 0
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