Oral cancer and smoking are closely related, because the oral cavity, which is the route of ingestion of tobacco smoke, is in direct contact with the oral mucosa. Nicotine, one of the components of tobacco, can diffuse rapidly to the central nervous system and is responsible for tobacco addiction. Nicotine is present in high concentrations in the bloodstream of smokers; while the addictive effects of this alkaloid have extensively been studied, its effect on tumorigenesis is not clear yet. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effect of nicotine on cell proliferation and the signaling pathways it activates. The human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line HSC-2 was used as a model system. We demonstrated the correlation between nicotine and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Nicotine treatment induced HSC-2 cell proliferation and migration and the phosphorylation of EGFR. Furthermore, nicotine treatment activated the EGFR downstream effectors phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/AKT and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK), which, in turn, promoted cell proliferation. Overall, our study suggests that nicotine promotes cell growth and migration through epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling and plays an important role in oral cancer progression.