The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been successfully applied in many organisms as a powerful genome-editing tool. Undoubtedly, it will soon be applied to human genome editing, including gene therapy. We have previously reported that unintentional DNA sequences derived from retrotransposons, genomic DNA, mRNA and vectors are captured at double-strand breaks (DSBs) sites when DSBs are introduced by the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Therefore, it is possible that unintentional insertions associated with DSB repair represent a potential risk for human genome editing gene therapies. To address this possibility, comprehensive sequencing of DSB sites was performed. Here, we report that exosome-mediated horizontal gene transfer occurs in DSB repair during genome editing. Exosomes are present in all fluids from living animals, including seawater and breathing mammals, suggesting that exosome-mediated horizontal gene transfer is the driving force behind mammalian genome evolution. The findings of this study highlight an emerging new risk for this leading-edge technology.