Christensenella minuta (C. minuta) is a gram-negative gastrointestinal bacterium associated with weight loss. However, recent studies have shown that C. minuta might be a potential pathogen and thus limited its application in the control of obesity. Research into the genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of C. minuta remain elusive. As a major virulence factor of gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce various diseases. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of C. minuta and have also identified some genes related to LPS biosynthesis. The structure of C. minuta LPS, detected by SDS-PAGE, was different from that of Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS. The incubation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with C. minuta LPS resulted in lower levels of cellular proliferation, phagocytosis and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation as compared to incubation with E. coli LPS. Furthermore, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production, was induced in C. minuta LPS-treated cells but to a much lower extent than that by E. coli LPS. These findings show that C. minuta LPS acts as a weak agonist for RAW 264.7 macrophages and can only trigger a weak inflammatory response through the NF-κB signalling pathway. In conclusion, these results suggest that the toxicity of C. minuta LPS is significantly attenuated due to its atypical structure and weak agonist activity for RAW 264.7 macrophages.